Category Archives: Bike

Part II: Lactate and Performance

Effect of Training on the Lactate Threshold
Effective training pushes the LT line to the right, meaning fitness is increasing.

This article is continued from Part I: What is Lactate?

My first Olympic Distance Triathlon was not an easy one. I picked HITS Marble Falls, in the hills outside of Austin. I deemed it a “B race”, since it was more of an experiment than anything else. It was my first 1500 meter swim so that was my biggest concern going into the race. I got through the swim just fine, rather unmemorable in the long run. I do remember the bike though. I found that I was able to pass a lot of people on the rolling hills. I muscled up the hills every time. By the time I got to the run, my legs were mush. There was a steep climb right out of T2. I could not understand why my legs were so tired. It was the first time that I remember walking in a race. Most of the people who I passed on the bike while blasting up the hills ended up passing me on the run. If I had invested in lactate testing before the race, I would not have blown up like that and I would have had more fun. Lactate testing gives you your individual training and racing zones. Armed with your new lactate knowledge from Part I, these six tips will help you perform better and may help reduce the (H+ ion) acid burn. Less burn equals better quality training and quicker recovery. Do all of the following:

1)      Get stronger. Your muscles are made up of mitochondria, as well as other building blocks. When you exercise, it is the mitochondria that process the energy. The average person’s muscle mass consists of 2% mitochondria. A pro runner or triathlete can have up to 10%. This is 5x the capacity that can process energy and convert the waste back into ATP, which fuels your Anaerobic System. The ATP function of the Anaerobic System does not last long, from 2-10 seconds, but it is just long enough for the Lactic Acid System to kick in – that starts at about 10 seconds and lasts another 20 seconds.

2)      Stay hydrated. Water is H2O. Or, 2 parts Hydrogen and one part Oxygen. If you stay hydrated throughout the day and during exercise, you will avoid that limitation. Blood consists of 55% water. If you are dehydrated, your blood will thin and not carry the necessary nutrients that your muscles need to perform.

3)      Breathe deeply. Also known as diaphragmatic breathing. It is important to get enough oxygen, but for human beings, it is difficult not to. Our lungs are overbuilt, so getting oxygen is the easy part. It is the exhale that we need to do more of. A full exhale gets rid of the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) waste product. (Glucose plus oxygen produces carbon dioxide, water and energy.)  So a deep breath will not only get rid of CO2, but it will also clear your lungs of this to give you more room to take in more Oxygen (O2). Thus, this is not just an issue for when we exercise at the higher intensities; it can affect you well before that. If you focus more on expelling a full breath, oxygen takes care of itself, it will come into the lungs without much effort. Train this when you are at work, driving in the car, or while reading this article! It will become habit and easier to do when you exercise.

4)      Eat carbohydrates and sugars. Glycolysis breaks down sugar in your blood stream and turns it into ATP.  H+, Lactate (H+ buffer) and Lactic Acid (fuel source) are also generated in glycolysis. Glycogen is the stored form of carbohydrates and sugars that we have in our muscles and use for energy. During a long workout (or after a workout), we deplete the glycogen levels in our muscles. For them to recover and get stronger, we need to replace glycogen by consuming more carbohydrates. (Note: for full muscle recovery, we also need to consume protein, amino acids and other essential nutrients – feel free to search the interweb on this subject if you do not want to wait for my take on it). Note that muscle soreness is activated by inflammation and nociceptor (pain receptors) activity. Overtraining (especially in relation to the amount of carbohydrates and sugars you have eaten) and poor diet contribute to inflammation. Thus, eating the right food and at the right times will help improve your performance. (Click HERE for the hands down best rap about glycolysis there is.)

5)      Detrain your anaerobic system. For an endurance event, you should attempt to minimize the amount of acid that goes into your muscles. You do this by staying below your Lactate Threshold (“LT”) for as long as you can, but if you do go above it, to keep it as short as possible. Every time you go above it, you “burn a match”. It is possible to train to make your matches last longer and to increase the number that you can burn, which may be useful if you do Sprints or Crits (Criterium bike racing). As mentioned above, if you always work out hard, then you might have an overbuilt anaerobic system. So even at an easy effort level, your body thinks you are about to go hard again and instantly produces acid. This is why sprinters hate running long distance; they produce too much acid to go long. To correct this, you may consider substituting anaerobic work for Zone 2 aerobic work. Your top end speed may suffer, but you will delay your H+ (and lactate) production, which will allow you to go faster for longer. You can always circle back to the Zone 4/5 work later.

6) Recover first. Most of the H+ acid is gone in 30 minutes to 2 hours. If you work out hard again later that day you may generate acid again quickly, since your muscles are still sore and inflamed. Plus, you won’t get much out of that workout for this same reason; your muscles haven’t healed yet. If you keep adding stress to your muscles before they recover, you become weaker and your fitness decreases. If you give yourself enough time to recover in between hard workouts, then your muscles heal and get stronger, or supercompensate. When you start again, you will be stronger and you will be fresh, so you will not flood your body with acid right away.

In the final installment of this series on Lactate and performance, we will examine lactate testing and how this compares to other forms of testing as well as what the test will tell you. Train smart and stay tuned!

If lactate testing is something you are interested in, check us out!

Riding Your Bike In The Rain


Riding your bike in the rain may be a scary proposition. If you haven’t done it much before, you have some things working against you; in addition to the lack of experience, you may be lacking some confidence. Hesitation can be the difference between wiping out and a good ride. That being said, if it’s not lightening or flooding out, next time it rains, follow this advice and get your experience so you have confidence in a race – and you can actually use the rain to your advantage.

1) Tires: deflate them by about 10 psi. This gives your tire a little more contact with the road.

2) Wheels: Most beginners and many intermediate/advanced use “Clincher” tires, which means you have an inner tube inside of their tire with an aluminum wheel. The other setup is the “Tubular” tire, which means the tire is the tube. It is glued onto the carbon wheel. Brake on carbon is not as effective as brake on aluminum. If you have both options and know ahead of time that it will be raining, you should seriously consider swapping your carbon wheels out and putting your aluminum wheels on. And don’t forget, you’ll need to switch your brakes too: Brakes for aluminum wheels don’t mix with carbon rims (and vice versa)!

3) Turning: Take extra precaution here by slowing down before the turn. The way you turn is different too. Where you place your center of gravity will affect the turn significantly. When it’s wet, try to get the bike to stay perpendicular to the ground! Your body can tilt into the turn, but get off of your seat and keep that bike vertical! That keeps the maximum contact with the ground, you don’t disrupt the forward motion of the tire and most importantly you are pushing the center of gravity upright, keeping the weight on that same plane of motion. This differs from turning on dry roads, where it’s good to lean your bike and body into the turn. But try the wet turn when it’s dry and see how it feels. You’ll notice the stability.

4) Path: Try to avoid riding on oil patches and slick, painted lane markers. Don’t follow the person in front of you as closely as you might normally. The spray from their tires will decrease your visibility. But do try to follow in their tire tracks. They usually clear some water for you so you have a little less water between your tires and the cement.

5) Gear: You will get wet. If you have rain gear, great! But you’ll still get wet. You may opt for unshaded eye protection; since it’s usually darker and tinted sunglasses will reduce visibility. Try not to wear white – unless you like the brown trail starting at your bum and working its way up your back – not to mention the inevitable jokes you will be subjected to it if you’re riding with friends who care about you.  🙂

6) Post-ride: Don’t forget to clean and dry your bike afterward. And tilt you bike so the water that got into your frame has a place to drain out! Water sneaks into the frame from the cable holes and seat post. You’ll want to be diligent about taking these measures to protect it from rust and early corrosion.

7) Rain bike: If you really get serious about riding in the rain, you can always convert an old bike to a “rain bike” and give it some fenders.

If I missed something about riding your bike in the rain, please add it to the comments below! I hope this helps you get out there next time. No matter your experience, take it slower than normal and get the experience under your belt.